Tag Archives: scientific approach

Experimental Design: A Background

Experimental design is now considered a standard methodology in research. However, this now classic design has not always been a standard approach. In this post, we will the following

  • The definition of experiment
  • The history of experiments
  • When to conduct experiments

Definition

The word experiment is derived from the word experience. When conducting an experiment, the researcher assigns people to have different experiences. He then determines if the experience he assigned people to had some effect on some sort of outcome. For example, if I want to know if the experience of sunlight affects the growth of plants I may develop two different experiences

  • Experience 1: Some plants receive sunlight
  • Experience 2: Some plants receive no sunlight

The outcome is the growth of the plants.By giving the plants different experiences of sunlight I can determine if sunlight influences the growth of plants.

History of Experiments

Experiments have been around informally since the 10th century with work done in the field of medicine. The use of experiments as known today began in the early 20th century in the field of psychology. By the 1920’s group comparison became an establish characteristics of experiments. By the 1930’s, random assignment was introduced. By the 1960’s various experimental designs were codified and documented. By the 1980’s there was literature coming out that addressed threats to validity.

Since the 1980’s experiments have become much more complicated with the development of more advanced statistical software problems. Despite all of the new complexity, normally simple experimental designs are easier to understand

When to Conduct Experiments

Experiments are conducted to attempt to establish a cause and effect relationship between independent and dependent variables. You try to create a controlled environment in which you provide the experience or independent variable(s) and then measure how they affect the outcome or dependent variable.

Since the setting of the experiment is controlled. You can say withou a doubt that only the experience influence the outcome. Off course, in reality, it is difficult to control all the factors in a study. The real goal is to try and limit the effect that these other factors have on the outcomes of a study.

Conclusion

Despite their long history, experiments are relatively new in research. This design has grown and matured over the years to become a powerful method for determining cause and effect. Therefore, researchers should e aware of this approach for use in their studies.

Curriculum Development: Overview

Curriculum development is the steps and procedures that are taken by individuals to enact changes to what is taught in a learning environment. This is different from curriculum design which is how a person views the subject or concept of curriculum. First, a person needs to design or conceive the curriculum in their mind. Second, they use an existing development model to actually create the curriculum.

There are many different processes or models of developing curriculum.  The various models are often put into two broad categories, which are the scientific and non-scientific approaches. Under each are several different models that meet different purposes.

The scientific approaches to developing curriculum get their name from being precise, detailed oriented, based on rational thinking, and rigid in structure. Common models that fall under this approach include Tyler model, Taba model, and the Backward-Design model. All of these models have goals and objectives that are measurable in that they can be observed. This emphasis on providing evidence is a hallmark of scientific approaches and is derived from an empirical worldview.

The non-scientific approaches focus on the subjective, aesthetic, and personal aspects of learning. Curriculum development models under this approach stress learner over evidence needed to prove the attainment of scientific objectives. Learning is a holistic experience that cannot be fragmented into discrete parts scientifically.  This approach is derived from post-modern/existentialist thinking with the focus on the individual rather than the masses as in the scientific approach.

Most teachers are unfamiliar with non-scientific approaches to curriculum development because education today is focused on research-based scientific practices. One model under the non-scientific approach is the Deliberation model.

Which approach to consider and what model to use depends always on the goals of the institution and the needs of the student.