Author Archives: Dr. Darrin

If-Then Statements in Excel VBA VIDEO

If then statements are common tool in programming. Through using this concept you can allow your application to choose from an infinite number of actions by simply limiting the choice to two at a time. This video will introduce how to implement if then statements in Excel VBA.

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DISTINCT, GROUP BY, HAVING in SQL VIDEO

In this video, we will look at more commands that are used for aggregation in SQL. The three commands we will look at include the DISTINCT, GROUP BY, and the HAVING command. The DISTINCT command pulls unique values, the GROUP BY command allows you to aggregate data by categories, and the HAVING command allows you to filter results as you decide.

Errors & Subroutines in Excel VBA

Whenever you create a line of code you have to be aware of the potential of errors frustrating the end user of your product. This post will provide some guidance on how to deal with errors when developing subroutines for Excel VBA.

The Product

Our subroutine is a currency convertor. It specifically converts Thai Baht to US Dollars. Below is the code.

Here is what this code does.

  1. Line 1 declares sub along with its name
  2. Line 2 Declare variable we will need
  3. Line 3 will cause a box to appear that will ask the user to input the amount of Baht to convert
  4. Line 4 indicates the formula for conversion and the output

It is possible to run this code for the developer. However, this is not for a developer but for a user who may not be familiar with VBA coding. Therefore, we need to have a way to run this subroutine from the Excel spreadsheet.

To run this subroutine from the Worksheet we will create a button. This can be done by clicking

developers-> Insert->Button

Once the button is create Excel will ask you which macro to assign to it. Simply click on the macro that has the same name as the subroutine as shown below.

Implementation

If the user inputs numbers and presses okay the subroutine works fine as you can see below.

Here is the answer below

The Problem

However there are problems if we enter text into our input box or if we click cancel. In either case. We get the following.

Excel takes us to the VBA developer and shows an error message. This can be a serious problem if we want other people to use this subroutine. In order to fix this we will add a few lines to our code as shown below.

Here are the additions

  1. Line 3 as some code that says “On Error GoTo Here” this tells VBA that when there is any error to jump down to line 7 where the word “Here:” is
  2. Line 8 is executed whenever there is an error and this brings up the box “There was an error”
  3. Line 6 makes sure that the error box only occurs when there is an error. If you do not put this Exit Sub code in there the error box will appear every time you run the code whether there is an error or not.

Below is what happens now when there is an error.

Now when there is a problem this is what the end user will see. It’s not clear what the error is but this is less confusing then allowing them to see code and the developer application.

Conclusion

This post provided an example of how to deal with errors when working wit VBA. There is naturally more than one way to handle the problems presented here. However, this is one viable way.

green trees between white concrete buildings

Organization, Bureaucracies, & Schools

A school is a type of formal organization. An organization is a group of people who are working together as a body to do something. A formal organization is an organization that has rules and regulations. Another trait of many organizations is that they often have traits of bureaucracies. This post will explore different types of organizations and also explain the characteristics of bureaucracies.

Organization Types

There are several types of organizations. A voluntary organization is an organization that is based on a common interest. Many of the clubs that one would find in a school would qualify as a voluntary organization. Examples would include student council, art club, photo club, or drama club. These are generally voluntary in that students can choose or not choose to participate, and they often involve hobbies students enjoy. For teachers, voluntary organizations might include associations such as the National Education Association (NEA) or Kappa Delta Pi. Teachers are often the leaders of various after-school clubs and thus members of these organizations at the local school level.

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Coercive organizations, as the name implies, are organizations people are compelled to join. School is a coercive organization for many students as many young people do not want to be there. Another example is a prison, as most inmates do not want to be inmates. This leads to the point that different people have different views of organizations. A teacher will probably not think of their school as a coercive organization, but a student might.

Total institutions are organizations that have sweeping powers over the lifestyles and choices of the members. Prison is one such example. In addition, many cults can have a large influence over the lives of their members in a way that is totalitarian. With time, schools have been given more and more responsibility for students’ lives to appear as total institutions. Schools’ responsibilities now include transportation, breakfast, after-school programs, sports, sex education, supporting students with disabilities, second language instruction, etc. Some of these examples are so old that they seem comical. However, there was a time when schools did not do these things.

Lastly, a utilitarian organization is an organization people join for a reward such as a salary or prestige. For example, teachers may see the school at which they work as a utilitarian organization because of the money. A student who goes to college may see the college as a utilitarian organization because of the reward of a degree at the end of their studies. Again, how a person views an organization can vary as one voluntary organization is another person’s utilitarian organization

Bureaucracies

Organizations often become bureaucracies which are simple, highly formal organizations. It is difficult to tell when an organization is a bureaucracy. However, organizations exhibit several traits of bureaucracies when they reach this stage of development, and they are…

  • Strong hierarchy
  • clear division of labor
  • explicit rules
  • impersonal
  • meritocracies

Burecraies have a strong hiearchy. At schools, it is clear who is in charge. Often, you will see a picture of the principal somewhere and the rest of the administrative team. At the university level, you will have a president, VPs, Deans, Chairs, etc., clearly mapped out for everyone. There are also clear lines of labor. Teachers teach while administrators deal with administration only at smaller organizations do these lines blend. When an organization is larger enough, clearly delineating these things is critical to order.

Bureaucracies also have clear, explicit rules. Again, we all know how obsessed schools are with rules. There are rules for the cafeteria, the library, the classroom, the playground; there are general school rules. Then there are policies for teachers, parents, administrators, and the list goes on and on. The large number of policies and rules are overwhelming, especially if one moves to the district or state level.

Bureaucracies are also highly impersonal. For schools, this applies if the school is really big, perhaps several thousand students. Universities are often viewed as impersonal monsters where nobody cares, and they are often personified when people or students want to complain about them. A common name is “the system,” as in “the the system fail such and such.” Another term common today is “systemic racism”; however, systems are not alive and thus cannot actually be racists. People can be racist through the rules they implement and enforce within the system, but the system has no life or conscience of its own.

Lastly, bureaucracies are based on merit. Within the government, promotion is generally based on years of service and some sort of assessment. To become a teacher, a person has to receive a certain amount of training. To become an administrator, the same idea applies. Honor students earned good grades, which is the way they are being honored. The point is that in bureaucracies, merit is a common trait.

Conclusion

Organizations are a necessary part of the human experience. Everyone belongs to one organization or another for whatever reason. With time, organizations can grow and become bureaucracies that have their own pros and cons.

GROUP BY, DISTINCT, HAVING Commands in SQL

This post will focus on several SQL commands that are often used for aggregation purposes. These commands are

  • DISTINCT
  • GROUP BY
  • HAVING

The data that will be used as examples is the Seasons_Stats data from Kaggle which is a database of NBA statistics.

DISTINCT

The DISTINCT command allows you to find unique items in a column. As an example, we want to find all of the unique positions in our database. Below is the code and output to do this.

SELECT DISTINCT Pos
from Seasons_Stats

In this dataset we can see that there are more than 5 positions in basketball because some of the players were coded as playing more than one position

GROUP BY

The GROUP BY command allows use to aggregate data by a group or a category in a categorical variable. In the example below we sum the points scored by position and we sort them by descending order. The code and output is below.

SELECT SUM(PTS), Pos
from Seasons_Stats
Group BY Pos
Order by SUM(PTS) DESC

We can see that shooting guards are the most prolific scorers followed by small forwards. By aggregating the points and then grouping them by position we are able to achieve a more nuance insight into our data.

HAVING

The HAVING command is a filter command similar to the WHERE command but the HAIVNG command is used in the context of aggregation. In the example below, we want to filter our previous code so that we only see positions that scored more than 2 million points. If we use a WHERE command we will get an error message as shown below.

SELECT SUM(PTS), Pos
from Seasons_Stats
WHERE SUM(PTS) >= 2000000
Group BY Pos
Order by SUM(PTS) DESC

The WHERE command cannot deal with aggregate data. Below is the same code but with the using of the HAVING command.

SELECT SUM(PTS), Pos
FROM Seasons_Stats
GROUP BY Pos
HAVING SUM(PTS) >= 2000000
ORDER BY SUM(PTS) DESC

By adding the HAVING command and stating we only wanted positions that scored more than 2 million points everything now works.

Conclusion

Hopefully, after learning about this commands, aggregating data is a little easier in SQL. There is always more than one way to do anything when using code. However, at least one way has been explained to deal with the problems that were addressed here.

Borrowing Functions in EXCEL VIDEO

Borrowing functions is a great shortcut when making your own functions in VBA. Why reinvent something if it is already available? If the function is there this reduces the likelihood of introducing bugs and errors to your code if you try to make the function yourself. Using functions inside your own functions. The video found below explains how to use Excel functions in your own VBA developed functions.

Making If-Then Statements in Excel VBA

If-then statements are used in programming to allow a computer to execute an action based on a criterion. When this is done well, a program can do almost anything the developer wants. This post will provide an example of how to use if-then statements in Excel VBA.

Our goal is to create a subroutine in Excel VBA that determines if a number is divisible by five. In order to do this we have to do the following

  1. Create a variable to store input from the user
  2. Ask the user for a number
  3. Test if this number is divisible by 5
  4. If the answer is yes do one thing
  5. If the answer is no do something else
  6. exit the subroutine.

Below is a visual of what is described above

The Code

Below is the code for completing this task. There is no other way but to share the whole thing and then go through screenshots of each step.

Below is an explanation

The subroutine is called “divideByFive.” After this, we create a variable called x as an integer.

After creating the x variable, Excel will ask the user for a number in the input box as shown below. For this example, we inputted the number 25.

Once you input a number and press Enter and Excel will use the mod function to determine if the number is divisible by five. If the mod is zero this means there is no remainder and this triggers true for the if-then statement. Since our number is divisible by five, you will see the following which is the first message box.

If you put any number that is not divisible by 5 you will see the following, which is the second message box.

For simplicity, we skipped many steps, for example, if you type in text or press the cancel button you will get an error message.

Conclusion

If then statements can be used in your programming to achieve specific actions in your code. The example provided here is one simple way of doing this in Excel VBA

Making Subroutines in Excel VIDEO

Subroutines are another tool that can be developed in VBA. They are similar to functions but generally serve a different purpose. In particular, subroutines allow you to program in a modular manner in which different pieces of code are developed separately. In the video found here is an introduction to Creating a subroutine in Excel.

Naming Cells & Cell Ranges in Excel

Naming cells and ranges is a way to complete task in Excel. This post will explain how to use this tool.

The main benefit of naming cells and ranges in Excel may be that it simplifies completing operations inside Excel. In the example below you are going to see two numbers

If we ever want to use the values 10 and 5 we have to continue typing 10 and 5. By naming these cells we can you the text terms length and width instead. In the screenshot below you can see in the upper left corner how I rename the value 10 with the term “length.” To the left of the formula bar and directly below the clipboard is a box called the “name box.” Right now it says “C2” but we will change that.

In the picture below we have changed the label “C2” to the word “length.”

We also renamed cell “C3” to “width”. In the screens below we will now call the names of the cells rather than their numerical values and still complete calculations.

You can see how the cells are highlighted when their names are called. Below is the output when pressing enter.

Look closely at the formula bar. The values 10 and 5 are not there. Rather the formula bar shows = length * width. In other words, naming a cell or cells is similar to declaring a variable in a programming language.

You don’t have to name each cell individually. By highlighting the column with the names and the columns with the numerical values you can do this all with a few clicks in Excel. In the picture below I have “base” and “height” in one column and in the column right next to it I have the values of 5 and 4. If I highlight the 2 rows and 2 columns I can then name a cell range from the current selection. This can be done two ways

  1. Click formulas->Create from selection
  2. Shift + ctrl + F3

When you do this you will see the following

Excel has already determine where the names for each named cell is. Once you click okay you will have two new named cells, “base” set to a value of 5 and “height set to a value of 4.

Editing the Names

If you ever want to edit or delete the names you have given a cell all you have to do is click on formula->Name manager or you can also press ctrl + F3 and you will see the following

In this box you can create new cell names, delete cell names, or edit.

Creating Named Ranges

A named range is more than one cell that has a shared name. To do this you highlight the multiple rows and columns you want and follow the same steps as naming an individual cell. Below is a picture of this. Notice how in the name box the rage is given the name “data.”

Naming a range will allow you to type its name somewhere else and instantly reproduce all of the data.

Conclusion

Naming cells and ranges is a convenient way to access information in your worksheets inside Excel. When it is necessary to deal with complex operations this can be another tool that can be employed to do things quickly.

Society Types

Throughout human history, there have been various types of societies that people have been found to inhabit. Although it might not be totally fair or accurate to state that these societies have appeared in chronological order since most of these societies are still present today, the types that are considered “older” are not as frequently found as later forms of societies.

This post will cover several commonly found societies in the world. These types of societies are…

  • Hunter gather
  • Pastoral
  • Horticultural
  • Agricultural
  • Feudal
  • Industrial
  • Informational

Preindustrial Societies

The first four societies (Hunter-Gatherer, Pastoral, Horticultural, and Agricultural) are considered preindustrial societies.

Hunter-Gatherer

A Hunter-gather society focuses on hunting and foraging or gathering plants for food that are uncultivated. Family and tribe and generally important in these types of societies. Often, this society is migratory follow the resources they hunt or leaving an area once the resources are depleted.

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Hunter-gatherers are considered the oldest type of society. However, today they are rare to find, except for indigenous peoples in various parts of the world. As the world becomes more urbanized and centralized, many governments prefer to keep a closer eye on people who wander from place to place and thus often discourage this lifestyle. As such, hunter-gathers are continuing to decline in terms of their numbers.

Pastoral

A pastoral society is a society in which the people have chosen to domesticate animals and plants. Despite this development, pastoral societies still had a nomadic lifestyle because they had to follow the food source of their animals. With the domestication of animals also came the use of the animals not just for food but also for clothing, transportation, and a general surplus of food. With this surplus, people began to specialize in various occupations needed by their society.

Horticultural and Agricultural

Horticultural societies developed in places with enough rain to allow people to stay in one place and grow feed in permanent settlements. Unlike the other two societies mentioned, horticulturalists did not live a nomadic lifestyle. What horticultural societies were missing was strong, reliable tools, which came with the development of agricultural societies.

Agricultural societies involved the use of tools that took farming from subsistence to a commercial level. People could not farm not just for survival but for profit. Various techniques for farming also developed, such as the use of fertilizers, crop rotation, and tools were use to boost yields. Specialization was also stronger, and many people would work in various occupations that had nothing to do with farming. Examples include the scholar, blacksmith, merchant, and more. With these various classes came division as one class or the other was viewed as superior to another.

Federal

Feudal societies are commonly found in the Middle Ages in Europe and in places such as Russia, Japan, and Thailand, among other places. This society did not involve a major technological change in how food production took place but was rather a time of power consolidation.

In any society, people begin to figure out how to exploit the rules to their advantage or to simply break the rules. Feudalism was essentially a rich gentry at the top exploiting the poor under them. All the poor seemed to get was protection from other rich people who wanted to conquer their village and become their slaves. There was no social mobility, and it was no way to break away and become independent.

Industrial Societies

The birth of industrial societies involves developing many forms of machinery that automate or speed up tasks. For example, steam-powered helped with transportation (trains and boats) and farm production (cotton). The improvements in technology led to increased factory production and allowed average people to own what used to be considered luxury items. Items such as paper and glass were quickly being made available for everybody.

It was during this time that people took their focuses away from the family to economic activity. A new generation of capitalists was able to unseat the feudalists from their seats of power. Essentially, capitalists were people who knew how to exploit and break the new rules for wealth and power.

Post-Industrial Societies

Perhaps the latest form of society is the post-industrial society, also known as the information age. Now, instead of making food (preindustrial focus) or making things (industrial focus), the information society uses various technical skills related to dealing with data. Today, there are jobs such as data scientists, analysis, computer science, etc., that focus on dealing with information in one way or another.

Work and career are also becoming much more important. A feudal farmer was not worried about a career, only surviving the day and relaxing in the even. The farmer’s life was focused on his family and not climbing the corporate ladder. Now, people are often socialized to put job and career before most other matters, which has weakened family relations.

Conclusion

Today people live in all of the societies mentioned here. It’s up to the person to decide which one of these societies works best for them. The primary goal was to share the various types of society found in the world today.

SQL and CASE WHEN Statements

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CASE WHEN statements are the SQL version of If-Then statements. Essentially, SQL will perform certain behaviors based on the the criteria you set at the data analyst. In this post, we will go through several examples of the use of CASE WHEN statements using the NBA_salary database that is available on Kaggle.

Example 1

In the first example, we are going to use a CASE WHEN statement to identify if a basketball player is a shooting guard or not below is the code followed by the output.

SELECT Pos,Tm,
CASE WHEN Pos = 'SG' THEN 'Yes' END AS Shooting_Guard
FROM Seasons_Stats

In line one we SELECT two columns which are Pos and Tm. In the second line is the CASE WHEN statement. We are telling SQL that when Pos = ‘SG’ then place a yes in a new column called Shooting_Guard. You can see in the second row that there is a shooting guard there and this is why there is a yes. All the other rows have a NULL there. In the next example we will learn how to deal with the NULL values.

Example 2

In the second example we will replace the NULL values with the word No. Below is the code and output

SELECT Pos,Tm,
CASE WHEN Pos = 'SG' THEN 'Yes'ELSE 'No' END AS Shooting_Guard
FROM Seasons_Stats

The only change to the code is found in the second line. We added the ELSE command and place the word No in single quotes. This tells SQL that if a player is not a shooting guard then put the word No in the new column.

Example 3

In this example we are going to employ an OR command. As with If-Then statements, CASE WHEN Statements can use AND, OR, IN commands as well. Below we are going to have SQL say yes if a player is a shooting guard or a member of the CHS team.

SELECT Pos,Tm,
CASE WHEN Pos = 'SG' OR Tm = 'CHS' THEN 'Yes'ELSE 'No' END AS Shooting_Guard
FROM Seasons_Stats

The only change is found in line 2 again. We added the OR command and told SQL to say yes if Tm = CHS. This why if you look at the results we have a yes in row 3. Even though this player is a SF SQL still marked yes because he was on the CHS team.

Example 4

In our last example, we are going to make several categories by using several WHEN statements. Specifically, we are going to divide players based on how many points they scored. Below is the code and output.

SELECT PTS, 
CASE WHEN PTS > 2500 THEN 'Over 2500'
	WHEN PTS > 1500 AND PTS < 2499 THEN 'Over 1500'
	WHEN PTS > 500 AND PTS < 1499 THEN 'Over 500'
	ELSE 'Less than 500' END AS Pts_groups
FROM Seasons_Stats 

Here is an explanation

  1. We call the PTS column
  2. We create our CASE WHEN statements
    • If a player scored more than 2500 then say ‘Over 2500’
    • If a player scored more than 1500 and less then 2499 the say ‘Over 1500’
    • If a player scored more than 500 and less then 1499 the say ‘Over 500’
    • If a player scored less than 1500 then say ‘Less than 500’

Conclusion

This was just several simple examples of the use of CASE WHEN statements. The purpose of this command is to perform certain actions when certain criteria are set. When this happens powerful things can be done in SQL.

Creating a Subroutine in Excel VBA

Subroutine are another tool that can be used in Excel VBA for achieving the goals of the creator. Subroutine come from the idea of modular programming in which code that is reused multiple times is created and store in its own separate space and called whenever it is needed. By creating a subroutine separately it does not have to b recreated every time the functions it does are needed.

Many wonder what the difference is between a subroutine and a function. For generally readers this is actually highly esoteric but the main difference is that subroutines do not return a value while functions do. In addition, functions can be used in formulas but subroutines cannot. Right now this difference between functions and subroutines is not important but when programming becomes more complex this difference can be significant.

In the subroutine in this post we are going to make subroutine that calculates the area of a triangle. IN order to achieve this we need the subroutine to do following.

  1. Ask for the length of the triangle
  2. Ask for the width of the triangle
  3. Calculate the area
  4. Return the answer to the user

The code for this is not as complicated as it seems below is the code.

  1. In the first line we declare a subroutine use the Sub followed by the name of the subroutine.
  2. Line 2-3 is where we declare the two variables we will need. Input boxes appear to get this information
  3. Line 4 we calculate the area
  4. Line 5 we print the results of area in a message box

To run this subroutine you can press F5 while in the VBA developer. Once this is done you will see the following

First, Excel asks for the length of your triangle. BElow you can see I typed the number 10.

Next, Excel will ask you for the width of your triangle. I put 4

Finally, we get an answer of 20 which is the area of a triangle in this situation.

Conclusion

With a few lines of code we are able to have Excel calculate the area of a triangle. This could have been done with a function or directly on the worksheet. However, if there is a reason you do not want the user to interact with the worksheet or you need to repeat this calculation over and over a subroutine may be more appropriate.

Terms Related to Culture

Culture is a term that is often thrown around but totally understood. This post will define what culture is along with definitions of other terms related to it.

Culture

Culture is the beliefs, values, and practices people learn in a specific context or society. A society is a group of people who hold to a similar culture. From this definition alone, we need to understand what beliefs and values are and, naturally, terms related to these.

Values are the standard for what is good in a culture. The idea of good is related to axiology in philosophy. The ideal culture is how people ought to behave, while the real culture is how people actually behave. For example, ideally, a child will not talk back to their teacher, but the reality is different. It is important to understand the difference between ideal and real culture because people are unaware of this distinction.

Beliefs are ideas that a group of people holds to be true and relate to epistemology. For example, different cultures have different views on religion, the role of women, and or communication. Whatever they believe is essentially a truth to them, even if this is not the best assumption.

Norms are another term related to culture, and these are the proper behaviors in a culture. These norms can be formal and informal. Mores are norms related to moral behaviors such as lying. It is okay in many cultures to lie in specific circumstances. Folkways are norms that are missing this moral component. An example of a folkway would be a handshake. Shaking hands has nothing to do with right or wrong but Is an expected custom in the West.

When people violate these values, beliefs, norms, etc., social controls are implemented. Social controls are ways employed to force people to comply with the local culture.

Types of Cultures

There are also different types of cultures. High culture is the culture of the elite or royalty. They usually have a distinct way of behaving. Popular culture is the culture of the masses. A subculture is a culture within a culture such as any migrant community in the West.

Counterculture is a subset of the majority culture that rejects the beliefs and values of the majority culture. Essentially, when a group of people is numerous enough to reject the mores of the majority, there is potential for a subculture.

Problems with Culture

There are problems with culture, but they are normally associated with people’s perception of culture rather than with the culture itself. FOr example, ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own culture is superior to others. IT is generally assumed that ethnocentrism is bad. However, this is generally coming from a perspective of cultural relativism, which states that a culture should be judged by its standards and no one else’s. Whether this is right or wrong depends on who you ask.

When ethnocentrism becomes extreme, it can lead to cultural imperialism, which is imposing one’s culture on someone else. The best example of this is looking at any colonial period and or empire that conquered another people. A group with more power thinks their way is better and looks to force this on the people they defeated.

However, when cultural relativism goes to an extreme, it leads to xenocentrism, which is the belief that another person’s culture is superior to one’s own. Again, what a person believes is their own business, but these are terms that people should be aware of when looking at culture.

Conclusion

All cultures are different and how people view them is different as well. The approach a person takes to a culture depends varies based on the culture they come from. Whether a culture is good or bad, right or wrong, is ultimately left to the individual to decide.

Aggregating Data in SQL

Aggregation is focused on summarizing data in order to develop some insights for taking action. This post will provide some simple ways to aggregate data in SQL. Specifically, we will learn how to use the following commands

  • COUNT
  • SUM
  • MIN
  • MAX
  • AVG

The data we are using is nba_salary which is available at the Kaggle website.

COUNT

The COUNT command allows you to count the number of rows that contain data in a table. In the code below we are going to count the number of data containing rows in the Seasons_Stats table.

SELECT COUNT(*)
FROM Seasons_Stats

As you can see the output is not much only one cell. In this first example we took into consideration all of the columns in the table. That is why there is an asterisk inside the COUNT function parentheses. However, you can also limit this to one or more columns as shown below.

SELECT COUNT(Player)
FROM Seasons_Stats

In the code above, we limited are query to only the “Player” column in the Table. You can see there is a differece in the count for this example and the previuous one. This indicates that some of the rows do not have data for the Player’s name.

SUM

The sum gives a total for numerical values. For our example, we are going to add up all the points scored by the players in our table.

SELECT SUM(PTS)
FROM Seasons_Stats

In this table, you can see the number of points scored. This command is rather straightforward in how to use it,

MIN and MAX

The MIN and MAX commands do what they say. To make this a little more interesting we are going to use these two commands together to find the range of the data. In the table we are going to use the Age column which shares the age of the player. We are going to do three things in the code below

  • calculate the minimum age
  • Calculate the maximum age
  • Find the difference between the MAX and the MIN to get the range of the age

The code and output are below

SELECT MIN(Age),
	   MAX(Age),
	   MAX(Age) - MIN(Age)
FROM Seasons_Stats

AVG

The AVG command calculates the average. this is also rather simple. Therefore, the code is below for the average age of a basketball player.

SELECT AVG(Age)
FROM Seasons_Stats

Conclusion

This post share some simple ways in which aggregation can happening when using SQL. There are naturally other ways that these tools can be used. However, for informative purposes this will provide a foundation for someone who is new to using SQL.

Making Dashboards in Excel VIDEO

Understanding how to make dashboards is an in demand skill. Many analyst jobs come with the expectation that the applicant can do this. Dashboards provide a way for a manager to play with different visualizations and or aggregations of some data without have to code or create anything themselves. In the video below, we will learn how to make a dashboard in Excel.

Borrow a Function in Excel

When creating a function of your own in Excel often it is more practical to borrow formulas rather than code all of this behavior yourself. In this post, we will learn how to create functions that borrow other functions already available in Excel. Specifically, we are going to create a function that calculates the range of a dataset through using the difference between the max and min functions of excel.

In the piture below we want to find the range of this data.

To get the answer we need to go into the VBA editor. This is available by clicking on the developer tab and clicking on Visual basic. When you do this you will see the following.

Once inside visual basic click on insert->module to add a new module. Inside this module is where we will place our code.

The Code

The code is rather simply and is shown below

At the top we type the name function to indicate to Excel what we are making. Next to this, we define the name of the function and inside the parentheses we indicate what the arguments are. after this we indicate the data type. In this situation the name of the function is “spread” and it takes the argument “spr” and the data type is “Double.”

In the next link we explain the behavior of the function. We use the command application.WorksheetFunction,Max() to call the max function whic will find the largest value in the spr data object. We repeat this process with the min function after the minus sign. Lastly, we end the function.

The Results

We can now test the function. In the first picture we call the function and in the second we show the results.

Now for the results

The dataset is small enough that you can check this manually. The number 12 is the largest while the number 1 is the smallest. The difference between 12 and 1 is 11.

Conclusion

With a few lines of code we can quickly borrow functions in Excel to create our own functions. Doing this can save a lot of time especially when you begin to create much more complex functions

Pivot Tables in Excel VIDEO

Pivot tables is one way of performing data aggregation in Excel. With a few clicks of the mouse many different insights can be extracted from some data. The video below explains how to make pivot tables in Excel. Knowledge of this is an expectation in many analyst jobs. Please like and comment on this video and let us know how we can continue to improve.

Data Validation in Excel VIDEO

Data-validation is a tool in Excel that is a great way to avoid making mistakes when inputting data. Anybody who has ever done any data collection knows the headache of have to fix data entry errors. These mistakes can have a sever impact on the analysis and conclusions that analyst makes. The video below demonstrates how to implement data validation in Excel.

Text Manipulation in Excel VIDEO

Text manipulation is becoming more and more important as unstructured data becomes more popular for analysis. Although Excel is not designed for serious text analysis there are some basics functions in Excel that can manipulate text for additional analysis. The video below address Basics of manipulating text in Excel

Acquired Characteristics & Natural Selection

Acquired characteristics is an ancient idea and goes by several names. The ideas behind this term are also called the Law of Use and Disuse and Lamarckianism after the French scientist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. The idea behind acquired characteristics is that if an animal “acquired” a trait in its lifetime, it would be passed to its offspring.

Common analogies to explain this idea include the idea that if a horse had large muscles through hard and strenuous work, its offspring would inherit these muscles. However, the Law of Use and Disuse also meant that if an animal stopped using some part of its body, it would not manifest in the offspring. If we follow this line of thinking, if the person who cannot use their sense of smell has children, then this implies that the children will not be able to smell either. This is possible but not guaranteed.

Charles Darwin also adopted acquired characteristics in the development of his Theory of Evolution. However, a few years after his death, August Weisman conducted an experiment using mice. In the experiment, Wiesman cut off the tails of the mice and then had the mice reproduce. The hypothesis was if the parental mice did not have tails, then the offspring would not have tails.

After cutting off the tails of mice for 20 generations, Wiesman found that the offspring were always born with tails. This simple experiment disproves the ideal of disuse and, by implication, the use aspect as well. Naturally, all this was happening when an understanding of genetics was in its infancy and thus did not wholly negate Darwin’s Theory of Evolution.

Natural Selection

One of the main pillars of evolution is natural selection which states that the strong reproduce and pass on their traits to their offspring and the weak are not as successful for this. Opponents of evolution say that natural selection only selects variation within a species and does not create or generate new species. For example, a dog change color, grow larger or smaller, faster or slower, but it is still a dog. The local environment plays a role in manifesting traits, but it does not necessarily create new genes.

The same argument is supported by artificial breeding. People can change the appearance and even the behavior of animals through breeding. Racehorses, show dogs, milk-producing cows are all results of artificial breeding. Yet, in each example, a horse is still a horse, a dog is a dog, and a cow is still a cow.

There are also limits on variability. For example, there are natural limits in place genetically for animals and plants in terms of such traits like size, color, shape, etc. For example, apples range in size from that of a golf ball to up to four pounds. Whether an apple can evolve to the size of a ton over the course of millions or billions of years is a hypothesis that no scientist will live long enough to test.

Mutations happen naturally, but for an animal to grow a tail or lose an eye or develop the ability to fly, it would take more than one error in a long line of genetic code. Instead, it would take the changing of thousands of letters that have to be wrong in the right location and the right sequence.

The probability of this happening is not zero, and it could happen over millions of years. This requires a goal-directed approach that is being conducted randomly. It also assumes that the environment remains highly unchanged for long periods of time. This means no major changes in the climate, no catastrophic natural disasters, no dangerous diseases, etc. The changes also must be beneficial, and the organism must be lucky enough to reproduce, which is not a given—considering the time required and the need for some general stability, it would be difficult to conduct an experiment that confirms this.

IF, AND, & OR Functions in Excel VIDEO

In the video below we have an exciting introduction to several functions that are related to Boolean logic. Boolean logic is essential statements in which the only answer can be TRUE or FALSE. A lot of computer programing is based on this dichotomous idea.

For our purposes, we are going to learn how to employ the IF, AND, & OR Functions in Excel.

Naming Cells and Cell Ranges in Excel VIDEO

Most objects have names. People, places, things and in general most nouns have a name that is used to refer to them. However, computer coding can be much more boring, especially inside Excel. For example, C1 means nothing to most of us and C25:D25 means nothing as well. Fortunately, Excel allows a way to avoid this through name cells. In this post we will look at Naming cells and cell ranges in Excel in the video below.

Spontaneous Generation and Evolution

This post will look at the origins of spontaneous generation, how it was eventually disproven, and the rise of evolution in its place.

History of Spontaneous Generation

Spontaneous generation was the belief that living organisms could come from nonliving matter. This theory of life was believed for over 2,000 years until the work of Louis Pasteur and Charles Darwin in the late1850’s. The ideas of spontaneous generation begin in ancient Greece.

A presocratic philosopher named Anaximander is believed by many to be the first purpose that life began spontaneously, around the 5-6th century BCE. In so doing, Anaximander removed the agency of the Greek gods in the creation of man. About200 years later, Aristotle expanded Anaximander’s thoughts in several books that proposed spontaneous generation.

By the middle ages and the enlightenment, several experiments claimed to prove the validity of spontaneous generation. Below are several examples, along with some of the errors in the conclusions.

  • Jan Baptist van Helmont noted that trees grew bigger without any noticeable decrease in the soil around the tree. This indicated to him that the tree was growing spontaneously when the reality was that scientists were not yet familiar with the mechanisms of photosynthesis.
  • Van Helmont also mentions an experiment with wheat. He stated that if you put wheat in a jar and wrapped it in dirty wet underwear, a mouse would “appear” and eat the wheat. In actuality, the mouse would crawl inside when nobody was looking to eat the wheat.
  • Another experiment involved the fact that rotten meat would start to have maggots consume it. With the invention of the microscope, scientists realized that flies were laying eggs on the meat, and that was where the maggots came from. In addition, the experiment was further disproven by wrapping the rotten meat in cheesecloth which prevented the flies from laying their eggs on the meat. Francesco Redi conducted this falsification in 1668.

All of the examples above sowed seeds of doubt, but scientists often would not accept this evidence. This was partly because spontaneous generation was an old and established theory and firmly entrenched as the answer for the origins of life. Rejecting this was difficult personally and professionally, and one did not stand to gain much for this sacrifice. This all began to change with the work of Louis Pasteur.

Louis Pasteur

Pasteur had a radical idea at the time. He proposed to test the theory of spontaneous generation. He did a variation of the pond scum observation that supposedly supported spontaneous generation. Supporters of spontaneous generation stated that the green stuff (algae) grows by itself along with other things in the water, which provided additional evidence of life developing spontaneously. This same scum would grow even in water that was boiled first and then left outside long enough.

Pasteur conducted an experiment in which he placed chicken broth inside a flask. He then boiled the chicken broth to kill anything that was in it. What was different in this experiment from others was that flask had an s-shape top. This s-shape prevented anything from the air from getting inside the chicken broth because this would involve the particles traveling from the sky and then up the s-shape top of the flask.

Pasteur found that nothing ever grew inside the chicken broth. He replicated the experiment in different locations, elevations, weather, etc., and continued to get the same results. When he shared his results, it was the final nail in spontaneous generation. Others had provided evidence, but Pasteur provided evidence at a microbial level. Pasteur was developing his germ theory and was looking to disprove spontaneous generation to strengthen his germ theory position. However, he also had sunk the main view on the origin of life in the process. All this happened in the year 1859.

Darwin & Evolution

Naturally, scientists were distraught at the loss of spontaneous generation. Now the question was, where did humans come from? If life comes from life, does this mean that there is some supernatural explanation for life? Acknowledging a supernatural power that cannot be observed and tested is considered unscientific; however, in one of the incredible coincidences of scientific history, Charles Darwin published his theory on evolution in 1859. In other words, the same year that spontaneous generation was disproven scientifically, another explanation for the development of life was already on the scene.

There had been rumbles of evolution in the past, such as Lamarckianism, Catastrophism, and Uniformitarianism. The difference now was that the audience was much more receptive to another explanation after the most established view was destroyed. Suddenly, Darwin’s theory became the primary explanation for explaining life.

Darwin’s theory of evolution is the main explanation of the origin of life in the scientific community. It has achieved perhaps the same unquestioned standard of acceptance as spontaneous generation. A significant difference between spontaneous generation and evolution is that it is impossible to test evolution. You cannot do an experiment to prove or disprove it. Everything that happens in evolution happens millions of years ago or takes millions of years to happen.

There is observational evidence of evolution from million years ago, but two people can see the same data and come to different conclusions, especially when they are observing things rather than actively causing something to happen, such as in an experiment. Pasteur’s experiment can still be performed today, and the results will not change. Such an experiment (that develops new species over time) is still waiting to happen for evolution, and thus the cause-effect standard of an experiment

Making a Function in Excel VIDEO

Functions allow the user to automate redundant tasks that need to be completed. When you first begin making them sometimes it seems as those making the function takes more time than doing it manually. However, everything gets easier with practice. In the video below we will learn how to develop functions in Excel.

Creating Functions in Microsoft Excel

Many people will use Excel for years and never be familiar with some of the more advanced features. For example, there are ways to develop your own functions and even programs inside Excel using Visual Basic Application (VBA). This powerful tool is sitting there waiting to make life easier for Excel users. This post will explain how to create your own functions using Visual Basic Application in Microsoft Excel.

Load the Developers Tab

First, you need to add the developer’s tab to your ribbon. To do this, do the following

  1. Click on File->Options->Customize ribbon
  2. Then click “customize main ribbon” and click on the developers checkbox as shown below

Setup for the Function

Now that the developer’s tab is available. We need to click on it and then click on visual basic, as shown below.

Once you click on “Visual Basic,” you will see the following

To make a function, we need to add a module. This is done by clicking

  • Insert->Module

You will see the following

The Function

We are going to make a simple function that calculates the area of a triangle. The code is only three lines and is shown below.

Function area(base As Double, height As Double) As Double
area = (base * height) / 2
End Function

Line one is declaring the function and giving it the name “area.” Inside the parentheses, we have two parameters, “base” and “height.” Each of these parameters is a data type called double in VBA, which can be used to store decimals. The function itself is also a double data type as this is outside the parentheses.

Line two shows the actual formula for the area of a triangle.

Lastly, we finish the function by adding “End Function.” Generally, VBA does this for you automatically.

Test the Function

Now we can see if the function works by going to Excel. You don’t have to save the function or anything like that in this example. Go to excel and call the formula, place two numbers inside the parentheses, separated by a comma, and press enter. Below is an example.

Below is the output after press enter

Success

Conclusion

This was a simple example of how to make a function in Excel using VBA. There is so much more to explore and learn, but this is a great way to get started.

Basic Sociological Theories

In this post, we will look at several significant theories of sociology. These are basic ideas that anyone familiar with the field would know.

Functionalism

The functional perspective in sociology sees society as structured in a way that the parts of society are interrelated and connected. Each part or piece of society’s primary purpose is to meet people’s social and biological needs. The ideas behind this thought were developed by Herbert Spencer, who compared society to the human body. As the various body parts work together, so do the various social institutions of society.

Social institutions are the organizations in a society that meet the social needs of people. Examples of social institutions include schools, government agencies, churches, families, hospitals, etc. When these various institutions work together to benefit individuals, a state called dynamic equilibrium is met, and society is generally stable.

With the development of any society, specific laws, morals, values, etc., govern individual people’s behavior. These rules are called social facts. These rules protect society from social unrest and insecurity. For example, perhaps all countries have rules against theft and murder as allowing such behavior to go unpunished would unleash chaos.

There are times when society tries to improve the general condition of members, and these are called manifest functions. An example would be encouraging people to buy a home and providing ways to do this. Latent functions are unsolicited outcomes of manifest functions. An example would be an increase in do-it-yourself repairs as more and more people buy homes. When a social process has a negative outcome, it is called a dysfunction. One example of this would be bankruptcy, as people cannot pay for the homes they purchased.

Conflict Theory

Conflict theory is a theory proposed by Karl Marx, one of the leading proponents of Communism. Marx saw the world as a battle between social classes. This battle can be seen in the inequality in which people have access to the various social institutions of society such as schools, homes, money, jobs, etc. The people who have the most access also work nefariously to ensure others never obtain the same amount or maybe none of these resources.

Out of Marx’s ideas of conflict theory came the contribution of the Frankfurt school and their work with critical theory. Critical theory expands conflict theory to include race, religion, sexuality, gender, and essentially anything that is not a part of the majority’s values. The majority oppresses all minority positions in one way or another. This further expands into ideas developed in intersectionality and critical race theory, queer studies, and more.

The idea of conflict has had a significant impact on the average person. Few people are familiar with functionalism, but almost everyone in the West has heard of inequality and how some have more than others. In addition, Conflict Theory is not content to be a theory but encourages rectifying the inequality in society. Communism, critical theory, critical race theory, Queer Studies, Feminism, and more do not just describe society but want to change it actively.

Symbolic Interactionist Theory

Symbolic interactionist theory is focused on relationships between individuals rather than the broader society. Proponents of this perspective look for patterns in the relationships among people. Instead of looking at inequality and oppression as a conflict theorist, a symbolic interactionist looks at the relationships between activists as they challenge the system. There is an emphasis on symbols and the meaning behind them.

Constructivism is the belief that we construct reality. A term commonly associated with this is social constructs. For example, people have proposed that race, sexuality, and gender are social constructs. In other words, these ideas only exist because people say they do. Naturally, this is highly controversial, but specific ideas that used to be considered fixed are now considered fluid as people challenge existing norms.

Conclusion

These major sociological theories are used as a lens through which many experts see the world. Most of these theories do not have a direct impact on the average person. However, these views influence educators and leaders who either train the next generation or are leading the current one.

Terms in Sociology

This post will begin the exploration of sociology. Whenever possible, connections will be made to education and teaching. For now, we will look at some fundamental terms of sociology and a brief look at the history of this field.

Terms

Sociology is the study of the interaction of groups and societies with each other. This study can take place at a macro or micro-level, depending on the interests of the researcher. A micro-level analysis would examine small group and even individual interactions, while a macro-level analysis looks at the interaction between societies.

One aspect of society that sociologists study is culture. Culture is the beliefs and practices of a group. Culture is often studied using sociological imagination, which is an awareness of a person’s behavior and experience as it contributes to shaping the choices and perceptions of a person.

A concept closely related to culture that is also studied in sociology is called social facts. Social facts are the cultural rules that govern life. For example, a sociologist might look at how communication norms have changed since the arrival of social media.

History of Sociology

Sociology appears to have been around much longer than when it was first considered its own independent discipline. Greek philosophers study subjects and concepts associated with sociology, such as social cohesion, conflict, and power. Enlightenment philosophers such as Kant, Voltaire, and Hobbs also developed principles, such as calling for social reform, considered a part of sociology.

Auguste Comte is credited with reinventing the term sociology and popularizing it. Comte proposed that scientists could study society the same way that it was done in the natural sciences. When this happens, the world’s social problems, such as poverty and education, can be solved. The term for scientifically studying society is called positivism. This optimism that science can improve society may be what inspires the push for so much social reform today.

The ideas of Comte were translated from French to English by Martineau, which helped Comte’s ideas to spread. Other early pioneers of sociology include Karl Marx and his Conflict Theory. George Mead is the person who created the term “significant other,” which was initially not limited to a person someone was married to but rather to any important person in someone’s life.

Max Weber may have been one of the most influential of the early sociologist. He challenged Comte’s views on positivism with antipositivism. Antipositivism is simply rejecting the traditional scientific notion of objectivity for being subjective in one’s research. Weber also contributed quantitative and qualitative sociology as distinct research methods.

Conclusion

There is more to the background of sociology than what is provided here. One clear thing is that perhaps the pioneers of this field did not know the impact this discipline would have on the world in the near future

NOT, AND, & BETWEEN Commands in SQL VIDEO

This video explains the NOT, AND, & BETWEEN Commands in SQL. These are commonly used commands in SQL that any data scientist needs to be familiar with. The majority of an analyst’s day is actually spent getting and cleaning data. The video below provides a basic explanation of a basic concept that all analysts need to know.

Coping with Teaching Stress

Stress can be highly detrimental to teaching. High stress can lead to such problems as turnover/absenteeism, burnout, and health problems. All of the examples mentioned are enemies to the teachers. Teachers need to find ways to process stress to be available to support and guide their students. IN this post, we look at strategies for dealing with stress in the teaching profession.

Social Support/Group Cohesiveness

Social support involves a teacher’s sense that they have colleagues they can trust and that the teacher is not alone in facing the stressful challenges of teaching. Teaching can be a uniquely isolating experience because you often work alone in a classroom with children the entire day. Outside of breaks, lunch, and meetings, a teacher does not have the same adult-to-adult interaction level that is found in many other occupations.

Stress Balls

As such, schools often need to work on developing group cohesiveness among their teachers. Group cohesiveness is a measure of a social strength of a group. One way to develop this is to have team-building exercises and opportunities to socialize.

Hobbies

People need to have other interests besides teaching to take a productive break from the classroom. The type of hobby is up to the individual, but anything that allows for a break that encourages rejuvenation can potentially be beneficial to the teacher.

Just having a hobby to look forward to can reduce stress. Hobbies can also lead to insights in teaching or stories to share with students for illustrative purposes.

Exercise

Little needs to be said of exercise. Unfortunately, skipping exercise is typical behavior among virtually everybody. However, exercise is a powerful way to destress after a hard day in the classroom. Often, when people are stress, they may also feel tired and drain. This is all the more reason to move around so that you can release the tension with movement and sweat.

Self Awareness/Hardiness

Self-awareness involves understanding one’s self. Examples include knowing what brings stress into your life and avoiding it. Knowing one’s limits is also essential, as well as knowing when to withdraw from a situation.

Hardiness involves the ability to channel negative stress into positive challenges. One example is making it a challenge to deal with a difficult student or implement a flawed policy. The challenge is in getting the child to work or to use one’s talents and skills to realize poor policies. Instead of getting discouraged or stressed, looking at stressors as challenges can help develop the motivation to make it happen.

Professional Development

Professional development is an overlooked way of managing stress. However, by developing new skills and abilities, a teacher can solve existing problems, work more efficiently, and thus potentially reduce stress. For example, if a teacher is struggling with classroom management, this will probably cause stress. IF this same teacher receives training in classroom management, they can use this knowledge to deal with students and reduce their frustration.

Relevant professional development helps teachers solve problems that may cause stress. Therefore, a teacher should always look for ways to improve their talents as this may come in handy when a stressful situation arises,

Conclusion

Everyone deals with stress, but the real success is in how we all deal with it. Teaching does not have to be stressful if a teacher changes their perspective and sees stress as an opportunity to meet a challenge.

Common Stressors for Teachers

Teaching has its stress as any other job. This post will identify some of the familiar sources of stress in a teacher’s life.

Role Ambiguity

Role ambiguity is defined as a person who is unclear in terms of their job responsibilities. Teaching is a field where high ambiguity can be expected, and academic performance can be highly subjective. Attempts have been made to remove the ambiguity through such things as standardized testing. However, people, including children, are unpredictable, and adequately doing everything does not ensure the results that leadership expects.

When expectations are unclear, it can lead to a great deal of frustration and dissatisfaction for a teacher. There can even be a sense of powerlessness as if the teacher has no control over what happens to them in their classroom. The ambiguous nature of teachers may be why teachers quit, as it is challenging to obtain the expected results without a clear sense of what the expectations are.

Role Conflict

Role conflict is the placing of contrary expectations on a person. For example, teachers are expected to be gentle and nurturing while also maintaining order. An expectation of being nice and being mean simultaneously may be an example of role conflict. Teachers are often put in the position as others are in other occupations.

The effects of role conflict are similar to role ambiguity and generally lack job satisfaction and higher stress levels. Teachers may also lose confidence in leadership as they struggle with competing aspects of their job responsibilities. One common coping mechanism is withdrawal or avoiding others.

Role Overload

Role overload is essentially feelings or a sense of being overworked and unable to complete all assigned tasks. Overload can take two forms. Quantitative overload is having more work than time, while qualitative overload is being pushed beyond one’s skill set, such as being asked to teach math when you are a music teacher.

Teaching can be overloading in either way. Teachers frequently have more to do than time, especially with the amount of documentation, preparation, and grading that are a part of the job. In addition, as mentioned above, having to teach outside of one’s expertise is a common experience for many.

The opposite of overload is underutilization and is another stressor for teachers. Underutilization is a lack of the use of a person’s skills and abilities. This can lead to the stress of boredom, low self-esteem, and job dissatisfaction. The experience of role utilization may happen with experienced teachers who need new challenges.

Personality 

There are several factors concerning the personality and the teacher’s life that can cause stress. For example, teachers with a type A personality are often at a greater risk of stress. Type A personalities are characterized as people who are impatient, restless, and competitive. Type B personalities are generally the opposite of type A and have a more easy-going attitude.

Another personal life stressor is the amount of change and turmoil in a teacher’s life. Illness, death of a loved one, divorce, or any other major life catastrophe can manifest itself in a teacher’s life and lead to a great deal of stress. This may carry over into the classroom and impact job performance as well.

Conclusion

All jobs have stress, but we all need to be reminded of how this stress can occur. Teachers have to know what stressors they may experience so they can find ways to deal with them. Otherwise, the job challenges may be too much for them, leading to the loss of people who have committed to helping others.

Stress & Strain in the Classroom

Stress is a bitter part of any job. Even a job that is not stressful can cause stress from boredom. Teaching can be a stressful occupation as teachers have to deal with many unique individuals with distinct personalities. This post will look at stress, how people deal with it, and the types of negative stress.

Stress & Strain

Stress is the physical and emotional responses people have to various aspects and experiences within their environment. Stress can be harmful, which we call distress, or it can be positive, called eustress. Examples of distress in the classroom can include disruptive students, marking assignments, or dealing with parents. Examples of eustress can include working with engaged students, developing new teaching methods, and learning something new to share with students.

When teachers experience stress, it can lead to something called strain. Strain is the damage inflicted on a person because of stress. In other words, strain is the cumulative effect of stress. It is not one or two stressful moments that wear a teacher down but rather the stress over time.

Stress is pervasive in a classroom as dealing with young people generally is. However, no two people handle stress the same way. Some strive in a stressful environment while others struggle tremendously. One person’s classroom of chaos is another person’s classroom of collaboration. However, there is a model of how people respond to stress.

General Adaptation Syndrome

General adaptation syndrome is the name for the steps people take to deal with stress. The three steps are…

  1. Alarm
  2. Resistance
  3. Exhausation 

Alarm is the initial response to stress and is often known as the “fight or flight” experience. In the classroom, this can be a teacher reacting to students arguing over something. Step two is resistance and is how a person tries to return to a state of equilibrium. For example, when the teacher notices the arguing, the intervening to break up the fighting and get everyone back on task. Lastly, exhaustion results from experiencing the first two steps and represents the long-term effects of stress such as illness or high blood pressure.

Types of Negative Stress

There is positive and negative stress. Under negative stress, there are also two types, which are frustration and anxiety. Frustration is a person’s reaction to not being able to achieve a goal. For example, a teacher is excited about teaching a new concept or idea to the students, only for the students to be completely disruptive. Since the teacher cannot teach, it is probably that frustration will set in that can lead to exhaustion or, worst.

Anxiety is a sense of helpless to rise to the challenge of a stressful situation. For example, if a class gets out of control, a teacher may experience anxiety as they have no idea how to handle that current situation. Anxiety can also happen in a novel situation. For example, an experienced teacher may suffer anxiety when dealing with their first special needs child or a challenging child.

Conclusion

Even though stress is a reality for a teacher, it does not have to take and lead to discouragement. Understanding what stress is and how it manifests itself is one practical way to deal with this enemy of teaching.

WHERE, LIKE, IN Commands SQL VIDEO

In this video, ERT will explain how to filter data in SQL. Often, we want results but we don’t want everything the database can provide us. This can be because its too much information but also because getting everything can take a long time with larger database. For these and other reasons we will learn how to use some of the Filtering commands in SQL.

Adjusting to the Classroom for Teachers and Students

Adjusting to the workplace or school is a challenge for teachers and students. This post will look at five ways people respond to the adjustment, as first researched by W.S. Neff.

No Motivation

The first type of person who struggles in the classroom is a person who has no motivation. They have a negative view of their role in the classroom and want to avoid work to avoid discomfort.

Teachers who lack motivation are often considered to be suffering from burnout. In other words, these were teachers who use to be on fire but have struggled to keep the flame burning. Burnout and loss of motivation have also become acute problems with the move to online learning. Essentially some teachers have lost motivation because they are struggling to cope with the changes in teaching that have hit the entire world.

It is more common to see students who lack motivation. In an entertainment-driven world, sitting still in class is challenging and lacks relevance for many young people. With learning online, it can be even more torturous to have to endure sitting in front of the computer for hours. Some students have to study through their small cellphone for hours each day.

The Fearful

Some people respond with fear and or anxiety about coping with work or school. The stress and demands of work can weigh heavily upon them. Teachers, as an example, may be worried about students who have real and severe problems. They also may be struggling with the workload of teaching as they try and support dozens of students at any given moment.

Any student can suffer from anxiety and fear about the school, but students who suffer from bullying and/or high performers are often at risk for this. The bullied student has to worry about the people who are mistreating them, while the high performer is worried about maintaining high performance.

The Hostile Ones

Some react with anger and aggression towards stress. These are the people who are identified as having a short temper and are hard to get along with. Such individuals dislike the strain of their role by attacking those around them. Teachers do this, but it can be challenging to keep a position long-term with this sort of behavior.

Students also do this, and given their age; there is more effort to work with them through aggressive, emotional issues. Students are already dealing with change as they mature into adults, and coping with their role at school could cause problems. For example, students who have family problems may also act aggressive at school as they try and cope with the issues they face at home.

Dependency

 People who become dependent cannot take the initiative for anything and have a sense of helplessness. For a teacher, this can manifest itself with a lack of decisiveness in the classroom and unclear instruction. The teacher is so overwhelmed that they literally cannot think and make choices. Anybody who is in a highly stressful situation will look for guidance to attain the stability and/or safety that they crave, which happens to some teachers.

Dependency among students can happen if they lack support at home. When home support is missing, friends are often the ones who provide stability. These students turn to friends for advice and decision-making in place of what could be provided by parents.

Socially Naive

Some people have no idea how their actions affect those around them. They have no clue about the feelings and needs of others. These individuals are classified as socially naive. Task-oriented teachers and students often fall into this category. They are so focused on achieving something that they lose track of the people around them.

Introverts can also suffer from being socially naive as they have their minds that they are trying to keep track of and thus do not focus on what is happening in the heads of others as much.

Helping these Types

There is no single way to help people who fall into one of the examples above. It takes a holistic view of the life of the teacher or student to determine how to help them. Teachers often want to do at least the minimum to keep their jobs (hopefully). Therefore, if they are not even meeting the lowest standard, exploring causes can help them rebound in performance.

Students are more complicated as they often do not have the life burdens of bills and family. As such, they can be in a perfectly stable environment and still not perform or care as the struggles of reality have not hit them yet. In such a situation, it will take serious work to help them.

Conclusion

Everybody is different, and we all respond in different ways to the same situations. This post provided five types of roles people assume when coping with stress.

WHERE, LIKE and IN Commands for SQL

This post will explore the use and application of the WHERE, LIKE, and IN commands in SQL.

WHERE

The WHERE command is generally used as a way to filter data in SQL. The database we are using in this post contains data on basketball players from 1950-2017. What we want to do is filter the data so that we only see data from players who played in 2017. In the example below, we will filter our basketball players by year be set to 2017

SELECT *
FROM Seasons_Stats
WHERE year = 2017

If you look at the year column you can clearly see that the value is set to 2017 just as we wanted it.

The WHERE command is not limited to numbers as it can also be used with text. In the example below, we filter our data with the WHERE command so that we only see players who played for the Golden State Warriors (GSW).

SELECT *
FROM Seasons_Stats
WHERE Tm = 'GSW'

If you look closely at the “Tm” column you will only see the initials for the Golden State Warriors.

LIKE

The WHERE command is often teamed with the LIKE command when you are looking for a text but are not sure of an exact match. You can specify a pattern you are looking for similar to regular expressions. In the code below we use the LIKE command with the WHERE command searching for any player whose name begins with L.

SELECT *
FROM Seasons_Stats
WHERE Player LIKE 'L%'

The percentage sign (%) after the letter L tells SQL that anything can be after the letter L in the search and meet the criteria. We can also put the % at the end of or text or put one on both sides are some other combination as shown in the examples below.

In the example below, the last letter must be an L. After this example, is one in which an L must appear anywhere in the name.

SELECT *
FROM Seasons_Stats
WHERE Player LIKE '%L'
SELECT *
FROM Seasons_Stats
WHERE Player LIKE '%L%'

IN

The IN command allows you to filter your data based on several values. This command is also combined with the WHERE command. In the example below, we filter our data so that we only see players whose position is small forward or shooting guard.

SELECT *
FROM Seasons_Stats
WHERE Pos in  ('SG', 'SF')

You could also insert numerical values in the parentheses when using the IN command.

Conclusion

The command shared in this post provide more information on basic tools you can use and apply in SQL. Filtering using the WHERE, LIKE, and IN commands get helpo you to focus the breath of your research to find answers to your questions.