Implementation Model: Overcoming-Resistance-to-Change

There are many different models for implementing curriculum. One common model is the Overcoming-Resistance-to-Change Model (ORC model). This model focuses on gaining advocates and sharing power equally between administrators and teachers. The ORC model focuses on allowing for the personal needs of the teachers to be addressed through maintaining high flexibility in the implementation.

The ORC model focuses on change from the perspective of the teacher. In this model, there are four stages as listed below.

  1. Unrelated concerns
  2. Personal concerns
  3. Task-related concerns
  4. Impact-related concerns

Stage 1: Unrelated Concerns

The first stage is a stage of indifference. A teacher is aware change but do not see how it relates to their own life. As such the teacher is not worried about whatever innovation is coming. An example might be hearing about efforts to bring online learning to a school. The teacher knows this innovation is out there but it has not impacted them yet.

Stage 2: Personal Concerns

The teacher is now concerned with how the new innovation or curriculum will impact their life personally. For example, an English teacher wrestling with how using online learning will affect what they are trying to do in the classroom.

Stage 3: Task-Related Concerns

In stage 3, the teacher is thinking about how to use the new curriculum or innovation. Questions begin to go through their head in terms of application. For the online learning example, the teacher may wonder about such problems as how much time will it take to learn this? What are the best ways to use this new innovation? What kind of support will I get? These are just some of the many questions that are possible.

Stage 4: Impact-Related Concerns

Now the teacher has taken their focus of their performance and is now worried about how this will affect students. At this stage, teachers are focusing on their students, peers, and school. For the online learning example, teachers start to wonder how online learning will benefit the students. A teacher may start to wonder how other teachers are doing as they try to use this new innovation. The shift here is from self to others.


Change involves a reaction. For the ORC model, the reaction involves four clear steps. Every teacher may not go through these four stages. However, these stages help to explain what a leader can anticipate when trying to implement curriculum

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  1. Pingback: There’s No Such Thing as Change Resistance | Lean Change Management

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