Discourse markers are used in writing to help organize ideas. They are often those “little words” that native speakers use effortlessly as they communicate but are misunderstood by ESL speakers. This post will provide examples of various discourse markers.
Logical sequence discourse markers are used to place ideas in an order that is comprehensible to the listener/reader. They can be summative for concluding a longer section or resultative which is used to indicate the effect of something.
Examples of summative discourse markers include
- overall, to summarize, therefore, so far
An example of summarizing discourse markers is below. The bold word is the marker.
Smoking causes cancer. Studies show that people who smoke have higher rates of lung, esophagus, and larynx. Therefore, it is dangerous to smoke.
The paragraph is clear. The marker “Therefore” is summarizing what was said in the prior two sentences.
Examples of resultative discourse markers include the following
- so, consequently, therefore, as a result
An example of resultative discourse markers is below. The bold word is the marker.
Bob smoked cigarettes for 20 years. As a result,he developed lung cancer
Again, the second sentence with the marker “As a result” explain the consequence of smoking for 20 years.
Constrastive markers are words that indicate that the next idea is the opposite of the previous idea. There are three ways that this can be done. Replacive share an alternative idea, antithetic markers share ideas in opposition to the previous one. Lastly, concessive markers share unexpected information given the context.
Below are several words and or phrases that are replacive markers
- alternatively, on the other hand, rather
Below is an example of a replacive contrast marker used in a short paragraph. Bold word is the replacive
Smoking is a deadly lifestyle choice. This bad habit has killed millions of people. On the other hand, a vegetarian lifestyle has been found to be beneficial to the health of many people
Antithetic markers include the following
- conversely, instead, by contrast
Below is an example of antithetic marker used in a paragraph
A long and healthy life is unusually for those who choose to smoke. Instead, people who smoke live lives that are shorter and more full of disease and sickness.
Concessive markers includes some of the words below
- In spite of, nevertheless, anyway, anyhow
Below is an example of a concessive marker used in a paragraph
Bob smoked for 20 years. In spite of this, he was an elite athlete and had perfect health.
Discourse markers play a critical role in communicating the finer points of ideas that are used in communication. Understanding how these words are used can help ESL students in comprehending what they hear and read.