The CCAF Model of Instructional Design

The CCAF Model is another model of instruction used by teachers in both online and traditional classrooms. Acronym stands for


This post will discuss each of these characteristics.


Context is about establishing a setting in which the learning is relevant for the learners. This means developing real-world connections in the lesson so that students can see ways of application.

For example, if you are required to teaching a heavily theoretical course such as educational philosophy, establishing a context may mean showing how the various philosophy of education impact how teachers make decisions. You may also want to articulate how your own beliefs affect how you develop classes.


Challenging students is the same as engaging them. Assignments need to be stimulating enough that students have to work somewhat to complete them. This step has a great deal to do with motivation and overlaps with the previous step of context.

The main difference here is that at the challenge stage the students should be actively engaged in doing something. With context, the teacher is laying the foundation for the learning.


Activities are an extension of challenge. Activities need to be risk-free in order to allow students to learn from mistakes without fear of this lowering their grade. This step of the CCAF Model is similar to the practice step of other models.

The activities can also include interaction with peers through group experiences. This allows for you another form of communication in relation to progress in achieving learning goals.


While the students are engaged in challenging activities, this provides you as the teacher with opportunities to provide feedback on performance. Constant feedback helps students to know where they are at and how they are doing.

The feedback can take many shapes. It could be verbal encouragement, non-verbal approval, written, etc. The goal is to keep students in the loop in terms of their performance.


The CCAF model is a model that is focused on execution and is highly student-centered in terms of the activity level. After the context is set, the students are constantly engaged with doing various tasks and receiving feedback. This emphasis on action is what allows the students to be able to retain what they learn and call upon this knowledge in an authentic situation when they enter the workplace.

6 thoughts on “The CCAF Model of Instructional Design

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    1. Dr. Darrin

      Differentiated instruction is about the individual student. As such, you would not apply this model for the whole class but rather with individual students for the learning experience that is appropriate for them.

      1. Ranjith

        Oh my friend, you are right that differentiated instruction is for individual students; however, if the class is filled with these individuals (multi-lingual, cultural, personality, ability and so on), how do I attend to all the individuals and still move on? Time is one of the great factor in a structured school which is directly proportional to the competencies to be acquired by the end of the class.

      2. Dr. Darrin

        Differentiated instruction is excellent in theory and philosophical position but near impossible in practice in the typical classroom. It’s not efficient to have 20 different students learning separately unless the teacher has no family and has no need for sleep or personal time. The best you can do is group students by similarities and differentiate by groups and not individuals. Five groups of five students with different instruction is easier than 25 students each getting their own special instruction

  2. Pingback: Menyusun Konten eLearning dengan Menggunakan Model CCAF – Knowledge Binus

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