# Developing Functions in R Part II: Adding Arguments

In this post, we will continue the discussion on working with functions in R. Functions serve the purpose of programming R to execute several operations at once. This post, we will look at adding additional arguments to a function.

Arguments are the various entries within the parentheses. For example, in are example below the arguments of the function is x.

• ```MakePercent <- function(x) {
ToPercent <- round(x, digits = 2)
Output <- paste(ToPercent, "%", sep = "")
return(Output)
}```

In the example above there are many other arguments beside x. However, the only argument for the function is x. The other arguments in other parentheses belong to  other objects in the script. In this post, we are going to learn how to add additional arguments to the function.

Let’s say that we want to convert a number to a percentage like a previous function we made but we now want to be able to divide the number by whatever we want. Here is how it could be done.

```Percent_Divided <- function(x, divide) {
ToPercent <- round(x/divide, digits = 2)
Output <- paste(ToPercent, "%", sep = "")
return(Output)
}```

Here is what we did

1. We created the object ‘Percent_Divided’ and assigned the function with the arguments ‘x’ and ‘divide’
2. Next we use a { and we create the variable ‘ToPercent’ and we assigned the function ’round’  to round ‘x’ divided by whatever value ‘divide’ from the function takes. We then round the results of this two digits.
3. The results of ‘ToPercent’ are then assigned to the variable ‘Output’ where a ‘ %’ sign is assigned to the value
4. Lastly, the results of ‘Output’ are printed in the console.

Sounds simple. Below is the function in action dividing a number by 2 and then by 3

```> source('~/.active-rstudio-document', echo=TRUE)

> Percent_Divided <- function(x, divide) {
+         ToPercent <- round(x/divide, digits = 2)
+         Output <- paste(ToPercent, "%", sep = "")
+    .... [TRUNCATED]
> Percent_Divided(22.12234566, divide=2)
 "11.06%"
> Percent_Divided(22.12234566, divide=3)
 "7.37%"```

Here is what happen

1. You source the script from the source editor by typing ctrl + shift + enter
2. Next, I used the function ‘Percent_Divided’ with the number 22.12234566 and I decided to divide the number by two
3. R returns the answer 11.06%
4. Next I repeat the process but I divide by 3 this time
5. R returns the answer 7.37%

There is one problem. The argument ‘divide’ has no default  value. What this means is that you have to tell R what the value of ‘divide’ is every single time. As an example see below

```> Percent_Divided(22.12234566)
Error in Percent_Divided(22.12234566) :
argument "divide" is missing, with no default```

Because I did not tell R what value ‘divide’ would be, R was not able to complete the process of the function. To solve this problem we will set the default value of ‘divide’ to 10 in the script as shown below.

```Percent_Divided <- function(x, divide = 10) {
ToPercent <- round(x/divide, digits = 2)
Output <- paste(ToPercent, "%", sep = "")
return(Output)
}```

If you look closely you will see ‘divide = 10’. This is the default value for ‘divide’ if we do not set another number for ‘divide’ R will use 10. Below is an example using the default value of ‘divide’ and another example with ‘divide’ set to 5.

```> Percent_Divided <- function(x, divide = 10) {
+         ToPercent <- round(x/divide, digits = 2)
+         Output <- paste(ToPercent, "%", sep = "") .... [TRUNCATED]
> Percent_Divided(22.12234566)
 "2.21%"
> Percent_Divided(22.12234566, divide = 5)
 "4.42%"```

First we sourced the script using ctrl + shift + enter. In the first example, the number is automatically divided by 10 because this is the default. In the second example, we specific we wanted to divide by five by adding the argument ‘divide = 5’. You can see the difference in the results.

In a future post, we will continue to examine the role of arguments in functions.