Henri Fayol (1841-1925) had a major impact on managerial communication in his develop of 14 principles of management. In this post, we will look at these principles briefly and see how at least some of them can be applied in the classroom as educators.
Below is a list of the 14 principles of management by Fayol
- Division of work
- Unity of command
- Unity of direction
- Subordination of individual interest
- The degree of centralization
- Scalar chain
- Stability of personnel
- Esprit de corps
Division of Work & Authority
Division of work has to do with breaking work into small parts with each worker having responsibility for one aspect of the work. In the classroom, this would apply to group projects in which collaboration is required to complete a task.
Authority is the power to give orders and commands. The source of the authority cannot only be in the position. The leader must demonstrate expertise and competency in order to lead. For the classroom, it is a well-known tenet of education that the teacher must demonstrate expertise in their subject matter and knowledge of teaching.
Discipline & Unity of command
Discipline has to do with obedience. The workers should obey the leader. In the classroom this relates to concepts found in classroom management. The teacher must put in place mechanisms to ensure that the students follow directions.
Unity of command means that there should only be directions given from one leader to the workers. This is the default setting in some schools until about junior high or high school. At that point, students have several teachers at once. However, generally it is one teacher per classroom even if the students have several teachers.
Unity of Direction & Subordination i of Individual Interests
The employees activities must all be linked to the same objectives. This ensures everyone is going in the same directions. In the classroom, this relates to the idea of goals and objectives in teaching. The curriculum needs to be aligned with students all going in the same direction. A major difference here is that the activities may vary in terms of achieving the learning goals from student to student.
Subordination of individual interests in tells putting the organization ahead of personal goals. This is where there may be a break in managerial and educational practices. Currently, education in many parts of the world are highly focused on the students interest at the expense of what may be most efficient and beneficial to the institution.
Remuneration & Degree of Centralization
Remuneration has to do with the compensation. This can be monetary or non-monetary. Monetary needs to be high enough to provide some motivation to work. Non-monetary can include recognition, honor or privileges. In education, non-monetary compensation is standard in the form of grades, compliments, privileges, recognition, etc. Whatever is done is usually contributes to intrinsic or extrinsic motivation.
Centralization has to do with who makes decisions. A highly centralized institution has top down decision-making while a decentralized institution has decisions coming from many directions. Generally, in the classroom setting, decisions are made by the teacher. Students may be given autonomy over how to approach assignments or which assignments to do but the major decisions are made by the teacher even in highly decentralized classrooms due to the students inexperience and lack of maturity.
Scalar Chain & Order
Scalar chain has to do with recognizing the chain of command. The employee should contact the immediate supervisor when there is a problem. This prevents to many people going to the same person. In education, this is enforced by default as the only authority in a classroom is usually a teacher.
Order deals with having the resources to get the job done. In the classroom, there are many things the teacher can supply such as books, paper, pencils, etc. and even social needs such as attention and encouragement. However, sometimes there are physical needs that are neglected such as kids who miss breakfast and come to school hungry.
Equity & Stability of Personal
Equity means workers are treated fairly. This principle again relates to classroom management and even assessment. Students need to know that the process for discipline is fair even if it is dislike and that there is adequate preparation for assessments such as quizzes and tests.
Stability of personnel means keeping turnover to a minimum. In education, schools generally prefer to keep teacher long term if possible. Leaving during the middle of a school year whether a student or teacher is discouraged as it is disruptive.
Initiative & Esprit de Corps
Initiative means allowing workers to contribute new ideas and do things. This empowers workers and adds value to the company. In education, this also relates to classroom management in that students need to be able to share their opinion freely during discussions and also when they have concerns about what is happening in the classroom.
Esprit de corps focuses on morale. Workers need to feel good and appreciated. The classroom learning environment is a topic that is frequently studied in education. Students need to have their psychological needs meet through having a place to study that is safe and friendly.
These 14 principles are found in the business world, but they also have a strong influence in the world of education as well. Teachers can pull these principles any ideas that may be useful l in their classroom.